Paul’s textual homeland: Jewish Scriptures in Greek

Paul’s social homeland: multiethnic/ multi-religious Greco-Roman City

Paul’s activities triangulated with jews, proximate pagans, and pagan gods

Paul visited Jerusalem, and is claimed to have studied under Gamaliel

Luke tells of Paul’s home (Tarsus), his Roman citizenship and his missionary practice of teaching in synagogues

Paul letters are instances of Greco-Roman Rhetoric

The goal of ancient rhetoric and its purpose was persuasion

Spirit and Flesh: two of Paul’s favorite pairings

Spirit: Positive (Gospel/ benefits of being in Christ)

Flesh: sometimes Negative connotation (views of his competitors/ idolatry & sins associated with it/ negative moral force)

Paul begins to couple “circumcision” with “persecution”

Pagan outsiders sought inclusion to society by “conversion”



1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Romans, Galatians and Philippians

  • Initially Paul states that he is in Ephesus, and talks of the Galatians and visiting them
  • He had mentioned also traveling to Macedonia which is where I believe he still is in 2 Corinthians because of his mentioning of their gifts
  • Paul exact statement in Romans is “I am going to Jerusalem” followed by his announcing that he left Macedonia
  • We can assume that Galatians comes after Romans when he says he had left Macedonia and headed to Jerusalem, and because of his extensive journey prior which could account for 14 years
  • Phillipians is where Paul became imprisoned and where he does an overview of his years of traveling